The International Labor Organization (ILO) has recently
expressed its concerns about young people around the world experiencing weak
connections to the adult world of work.
The ILO believes that in southern tier countries the major issue is the
supply of jobs. But workforce issues,
the skills of young people and their connection to job markest are also
important. In 2005 the Lula government in Brazil
echoed these concerns with the launching of its Pro Jovens program designed to
subsidize employers who provide jobs to youth.
A new study written by Malcolm Bush, Woodstock Institute president and board member of the International Center for the Study of Childhood (CIESPI) at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, using data generously provided by the Rio based
Instituto de Estudos do Trabahlo e Sociedade, points to the problems facing
young people in one low-income community in Rio, Caju,
but also to the diversity of the young people´s educational and work
- -Young people whose parents can read or have themselves completed ensino fundamental or grade school are more likely than other young people to be one year or less behind grade level or to have not failed a grade.
- -Failing a year at school was related to being male and to having a higher number of other young people living in the household.
- -Young people overwhelmingly blamed themselves, not the quality of the schools in their community, for failing at school. Young people overwhelmingly blamed their incapacity to learn for the chief reason for failing at school.
- -40% of young
people who were working had a work card.
Not surpisingly, older youth were more likely to have a work card than
younger youth. But also young people who
had completed ensino fundamental were more likely to have a work card than
those who had not.
- -Younger youth were more likely to work in their own communities, older youth outside their communities. This finding suggests that the level of economic activity in low-income communities is an important condition for helping young people establish their work lives.
- -Most young people found their first jobs through family and friendship networks. While this finding indicates the richness of such connections in low-income communities, it suggests that youth from low-income communities could well be disadvantaged in finding work in the formal economy outside their neighborhoods.
-There is growing concern in Brazil about the number of young people who are neither involved in work or schooling. A much higher percentage of young women, (35%) than young men (17%) in the Caju sample fall into this category, a difference explainable by the young women who had children of their own or other domestic responsibilities.
This research, which will soon appear in its complete
form on the CIESPI web site, complements a major CIESPI project, Connecting Youth
in Low-Income Neigborhoods in Rio de Janeiro
to Work. This CIESPI project, funded by
FINEP and coordinated by Alexandre Soares, examines strategies for improving
such connections with a special concentration on five low-income communities in
Rio and in the context of community economic
For more information contact Malcolm Bush: email@example.com and Alexandre Soares: Aleprofisional@yahoo.com.br